That research would likely entail full review by institutional review boards and other human-subjects protections, including informed consent of donors and recipients of all biological materials.
Nonetheless, it could prove dangerous to our humanity. The scientific and medical criteria used to evaluate the safety of reproductive cloning must be the potential morbidity and death of the woman carrying the clone as a fetus and of the newborn and the risk to women donating the eggs.
Procreation as traditionally understood invites acceptance, rather than reshaping, engineering, or designing the next generation.
In our own workshop, held on August 7,we consulted with many of the world's leaders in nuclear transplantation to produce stem cells—I. The animal data suggest that late-term fetal losses and spontaneous abortions occur substantially more often with cloned fetuses than in natural pregnancies.
The abnormalities include a greater than normal size of fetus and placenta both during gestation and after birthpoor interaction between fetal and maternal components of the placenta, greater early-gestation and late-gestation fetal morbidity and mortality, greater postnatal mortality, and various developmental defects in the immune, cardiovascular, and possibly nervous systems.
As noted in Chapter 6during fertilization and the first stages of cell division, the chance of a chromosomal mishap is substantial.
Existing preimplantation and postimplantation genetic tests could be used to detect abnormalities, allowing selection of embryos to be implanted and therapeutic abortion in case of any problems.
Most male infertility is of unknown origin; research is needed to uncover the causes. The Coalition of Americans for Research Ethics at www. The panel's analysis of each is based on the scientific and medical literature and on presentations at its workshop. People value less what they see as interchangeable.
Genetic similarity does not affect in any way the moral separateness of those who are similar to each other. However, mitochondrial gene products that differ can elicit transplant rejection see Chapter 2. But a legally enforceable ban that criminalizes the implantation step should be sufficient to prevent such proscribed activity.
Research involving IVF presented ethical problems for the federal government because religious and right-to-life groups opposed a technique that sometimes results in the destruction of fertilized eggs. Given the enormous importance of what is at stake, we believe that the so-called "precautionary principle" should be our guide in this arena.
Procreation can, of course, be assisted by human ingenuity as with IVF. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. Many of the recommendations made by these committees have been written into laws controlling certain aspects of infertility therapies or the research associated with them, or both.
Besides the dehumanizing prospects of the turn toward manufacture that such programs of enhancement would require, there is the further difficulty of the lack of standards to guide the choices for "improvement.
Moreover, as mentioned in earlier chapters, the absence of federal support means no federal oversight of this research because the National Institutes of Health does not provide scientific peer review for private research.
Risks of competition, rivalry, jealousy, and parental tension could become heightened. However, this report from the National Academies addresses only the scientific and medical aspects of human reproductive cloning.
The fact that some procedure involves a distortion of function seems intuitively to be at least a prima facie reason against it. In preimplantation testing, two cells could be removed from an eight-cell morula.
The panel concludes this executive summary with a review of the scientific subjects that were covered. For the early human embryo, developmental failure appears to be the norm.
The properties of the cell lines could be studied directly, or the embryonic stem cells could be studied as they differentiate into other cell types. In his words, "I needed five week old fetuses.
In the EAB was disbanded. In reproductive cloning, a blastocyst formed by the nuclear transplantation procedure is implanted in a uterus, where it begins the process of forming a fetus. The panel's discussion inevitably included a comparison of the methods used for reproductive cloning and for nuclear transplantation to produce stem cells.
If no ban is imposed, it is possible that some organizations will attempt the reproductive cloning of humans. These scientific efforts include the use of a number of techniques to manipulate the genetic makeup of stem cells, including somatic cell nuclear transfer.
We do not assume that cloned children, once produced, would not be accepted, loved, or nurtured by their parents and relatives. For a description by one IVF parent of her feelings with regard to the fate of her embryos, see Hogben Animal models suggest that several hundred eggs may be required before one attempt at cloning can be successful.
Since the EAB was discontinued instudies have been few and privately funded.Evolution of assisted reproductive technologies.
namely gamete freezing and in vitro fertilization (IVF). The first child conceived with frozen-thawed sperm was born inand the first IVF. Arguments Against Reproductive Cloning and ‘Therapeutic’ Cloning will dare to articulate what I believe are the best arguments against reproductive cloning and so- I grant that in vitro fertilization (IVF) is a kind of partially artificial reproduction, but it.
Oct 04, · Morality of Human Reproductive Cloning "Be fruitful and multiply" – assumed to be natural, but IVF and cloning not mentioned in the Bible.
Cloning, Genetic Engineering, and IVF A Valley Bible Church Position Paper funkiskoket.com This paper will outline some of the biblical, moral, and scientific issues surrounding cloning, genetic engineering, and in vitro fertilization (IVF, also known as “test-tube abortion addresses this question.
This paper will accept the position. This is a sister of cloning via somatic cell nuclear transfer, the difference being that the nucleus is transferred from the one-celled embryo in this procedure rather than. The Evolution of the Science of Cloning, Abortion, and IVF The Evolution of the Science of Cloning, Abortion, and IVF Sociology Reproductive Ethics.
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