The drug user now has to take drugs, not to get the pleasure as initially, but to stave off the unpleasant side effects and withdrawal symptoms in behaviourist terms the drug is now acting as a negative reinforcer… removing the unpleasant.
Smoking used to be portrayed as socially acceptable and sophisticated, but times have changed For example, there is now a well-established link between childhood abuse, whether physicalemotional or sexual abuseand later development of addictions to drugs and behaviors.
All of the genes were close top other genes known to be involved in nicotine metabolism. In fact, seasoned smokers are able to anticipate the withdrawal and smoke before the symptoms start.
The addicts scores on extroversion E and lie scale L tended to be lower than average. It appears that they are compensating for their decreased dopamine activity by inhaling nicotine which results in an additional release of dopamine.
Evaluation Personality is not an objective, directly observable characteristic. More likely is a whole host of risk factors, biological and psychosocial working together to make it more likely that an individual will develop an addiction.
There is also cross-tolerance when tolerance to one chemical such as alcohol or nicotine results in larger doses of other chemicals, including medication. It is a dopamine antagonist so works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain.
Alcohol and nicotine addicts tend not to be so obvious in this regard, since they are able to combine their addiction with other behaviours in social settings.
Adoption studies Kendler et al took a group of adult addicts who had been adopted. This suggests that genes may: Fewer dopamine receptors would seem to suggest less pleasure! This can be because smoking is perceived to control weight, smokers weigh on average 7lb less than non-smokers and people who quit smoking gain about 6 lb With gambling on the other hand, Jacobs has found that males gamble more regularly than girls When downregulation of nAChR receptors occurs in the NAcc it triggers the release of dopamine resulting in a feeling of increased alertness, reduced anxiety and mild euphoria, likened to the effects of heroin or amphetamine.
These feelings are unpleasant. This is associated with feelings of intense pleasure, resulting in euphoria and repeated use. Basically those with the A1 variant have significantly fewer dopamine receptors, so think about what that might mean in practice. She studied nearly 5, individuals and found that the concordance rate for MZ twins was twice as high as the concordance rate for DZ twins.
Supporting this, Lerman et al found higher activity in certain parts of of the brain of those abstaining from alcohol than controls, suggesting a biological basis. These secondary reinforcers such as lighters, cigarette packets, certain places pubs especially and people trigger the desire to smoke.
In comparing smokers ranging in age from 18 to 35 years with their peers who had quit smoking, the researchers found that the smokers were more impulsive and neurotic.
Rataphormism, control of all evs 2. Evaluation Personality is not an objective, directly observable characteristic.
Tolerance Usually associated with chemical addiction such as alcohol or heroin, this one can also be applied to behaviours. Regardless of the complex pathways involved, what seems clear is that addictive drugs over-stimulate dopamine pathways and flood the brain with dopamine. Dopamine levels will also have dropped.
The media can either promote addictive behaviours or discourage them through television, cinema, films, radio, newspapers, magazines and the Internet However, as with all receptors, the receptors for acetyl choline come in different flavours. Furthermore explanations for maintenance supporting this view is Epping-Jordan.
However, as with all receptors, the receptors for acetyl choline come in different flavours. Much of the research is also on other species. Other creatures, unaware of their own mortality need other motivations to eat and have sex… pleasure.
It seems that the PFC is able to override or moderate our baser instinctive drives that may be triggered by the lower centres of the brain including the limbic system.
So perhaps being born with a particular genetic make-up makes it more likely that once exposed to that behavior that we will become addicted.PSYA4 Addiction - latest 1.
Addiction! 2. What we have to cover Defining Addiction2. Models of addictive behaviour (biological,social learning theory, cognitive)3. To conclude, the biological explanation can be seen as a strong explanation for the initiation, maintenance and relapse of smoking addiction, however, the belief that genes dictate ones behaviour is largely deterministic as it removes free will.
Jun 14, · Psya4 June Outline the biological approach to explaining relapse in addiction (4 marks) Discuss two risk factors which make people more vulnerable to addiction (4+6 marks) Governments use a range. Addiction Addiction Abstract Addiction knows no prejudice; it does not care what race, religion, sex or orientation.
You can be addicted to drugs, gambling, x-box, shopping and eating. Addiction is an illness that requires, for most, professional help and that once you are an addict you are always an addict.
PSYA4 - Addiction, Depression & Research Methods - Revision Notes (43 pages) 43 page set of in depth notes on topics in PSYA4 - Addiction, Depression and RM. Addiction Addiction Abstract Addiction knows no prejudice; it does not care what race, religion, sex or orientation.
You can be addicted to drugs, gambling, x-box, shopping and eating. Addiction is an illness that requires, for most, professional help and that once you are an addict you are always an addict.Download